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Linux training in Chandigarh

Directory structure of linux

As a usually very organized Virgo, I like to store things in small, organized teams rather than in a big bucket. The use of directories helps me store and find the files I want. Directories are also referred to as folders because they can be thought of as folders that store files in a physical desktop analogy. Today, we discuss Linux directory structure with Linux training in Chandigarh.

In Linux and many other operating systems, directories can be built in a hierarchical tree structure. The Linux directory structure is defined and documented in the Linux File System Hierarchy Standard (FHS). When accessing these directories, these directories are implemented by using deeper directory names such as / var / log and / var / spool / mail. These are called paths.

Directory structure


The following table replenish a brief list of well-known and defined top-level Linux standard directories and their purpose.



/ (root filesystem) The root file system is the top directory of the file system. It must contain all the files required by the Linux system that was started before other file systems were installed. It must contain all the necessary executables and libraries needed to boot the remaining file system. After the system is booted, all other file systems will be installed as subdirectories of the root file system on a standard, well-defined installation point.
/bin The /bin directory contains user executables.
/boot Contains the static boot loader and kernel executables and configuration files needed to start a Linux computer
/dev This directory contains device files for each hardware device connected to the system. These are not device drivers, but rather files that represent each device on the computer and are easy to access.
/etc Contains the host’s local system configuration file.
/home The home directory of the user file is stored. Each user has a subdirectory in / home.
/lib Contains the shared library files needed to boot the system.
/media Install the location of an external removable media device (such as a USB thumb drive) that may be connected to the host.
/mnt Temporary mount points on regular file systems (for example, in non-removable media) can be used by an administrator to repair or process file systems.
/opt Optional files (such as vendor-provided applications) should be located here.
/root This is not the root (/) file system. It is the root user’s home directory.
/sbin System binary file. These are executable files for system management.
/tmp Temporary directory. The operating system and many programs are used to store temporary files. Users may also temporarily store files here. Please note that files stored here may be deleted at any time without notice.
/usr These are shareable read-only files, including executable files and libraries, man files, and other types of documents..
/var Variable data files are stored here.This can include log files, MySQL and other database files, web server data files, email inboxes, etc.

Table :  Linux filesystem hierarchy

The directories and their subdirectories and their subdirectories shown in Table 1 are considered part of the root file system. That is, they cannot be created as separate file systems and are installed at startup. This is because they (especially their contents) must appear at startup to allow the system to start properly.

The /media and /mnt directories are part of the root file system, but they do not contain any data. Instead, they are only temporary mount points

The remaining directories (directories with no background color in Table 1) do not need to exist in the boot sequence, but will be installed during the boot sequence so that the host can perform useful work.(FHS) refer to the official Linux File System Hierarchy Standards make it sure in these directories and their many subdirectories. Wikipedia also has a good description of FHS. This standard should be adhered to as far as possible to ensure the consistency of operation and function. This hierarchical directory structure is the same regardless of the file system type used on the host.

By RedHat linux certification in Chandigarh | Linux training in Chandigarh 

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Call-only Campaigns

AdWords Call-Only Campaigns – Who Should Use Them?

Call-only campaigns

To get phone calls for business, You should set a AdWords call-only campaign to inspire customers to call you by tapping or clicking on your ad. With call-only campaigns, you bid to ride calls to your business rather of clicks to your website. Anyone can set their ads to show only when your business can take calls, so that no one miss an activity to connect with their customers.

This is an descriptive article about call-only campaigns. For instructions, go to Create a call-only campaign. To add phone numbers to physical text ads, skip to About call extensions. Get More Knowledge about these Call-Only Campaigns with PPC Training in Chandigarh.

call-only campaigns

How AdWords Call-Only Campaigns work?

Ads created in AdWords call-only campaigns are adjust to show only on mobile devices that are accomplished of making calls. Taps on these ads will only generate calls they are not linked to a website. These ads are very adjustable with how they can arrive. To optimize for mobile and appreciate performance, your ads may not constantly show every line of text you enter when context your campaign. This can accessible for Adwords call-only campaigns, that also be fantastic in actions to make the better of the lessor screen space on mobile devices.
Extensions develop your ad with addition advice and can give your ad higher accuracy and height on the search results page. There is no amount is added and it is accepted that you add all development that are relevant to your business. Clicks on your ad will be charged as constant.

Here are some key points to know about using call-only campaigns:

  • You can share your phone numbers beyond ads within an ad group or integrated campaign.
    You can set numbers to show only when your business can take calls.
  • You can count calls as growth. Learn more About phone call growth tracking and About call reporting.
    Clicks on your number are the same cost as caption clicks.
  • Call-only campaigns are not yet accessible for campaigns targeting the Display Network.
  • When you create a new ad in your call-only campaign, you’ll be challenge to enter a phone number for your business.
  • It is the way to approve your ad and number, we’ll ask for a documents URL, which should lead to page that display your phone number. Learn more about Call-only ad conditions.
  • Users in India have the benefits to place a phone call straightly, or select the missed call option. If a user absolute the missed call option, AdWords will place one call to the advertiser and additional the user, then associate the calls once both the user and organizer are on the line.

What Businesses Need This Call-Only Feature?

If the steep depends on phone calls above all else, it’s likely to achieve greatly with call-only campaigns. Diverse, extensive discussions with a aggression of clients in different industries to rely upon. In the sufficient amount of discussions, numerous clients had settled down so that their business was so adjusted to phone calls that they were sure to see success with the option.

It appear to me that the ratio of users that chose the click-to-call article on mobile vs the total number of mobile beat would be a sure sign. We can call it the Mobile Click-to-Call Rate.

The Call-Only Campaign Type Purpose

If the option was before available to make the call development phone call only, why did Google bother enhance it to a separate campaign type?

Google made this move for three reasons:

  • Many people were annoyment about conditions imposed by Enhanced Campaigns, as Enhanced Campaigns did not grant mobile campaigns from being disjointed from desktop campaigns.
  • Many sences call-only campaigns would achieve much better for definite industries than everywhere campaigns.
  • Google believes the dump point of mobile traffic has arrived.

While the enhanced unit can activate the option to increase the mobile bid modifier, it also forces mobile and desktop ads to be optimized together. This structure can create worse results for the accounts. The purpose these Call-Only Campaign are given , get more Information about Call-Only with PPC Training in Chandigarh.

Part of the problem is how valuable are phone calls compared to the user’s ability to research the company’s website. In the aforementioned companies that should use this new type of campaign, call-only campaigns have generated an incredible increase in business. It just made too much sense for Google not to promote a specialized type of campaign.

Google has hesitated to do something that reduces competition and the average cost per click on desktop computers and tablets. On the other hand, Google may believe that it can generate a much greater mobile competition in certain vertical markets by promoting mobile-only campaigns that only allow telephone calls.

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Android Latest version – AndroidP

An open source that is based on Linux, Android is a powerful operating system for smartphones, tablets, and computers. It mainly works on Java language, though other computer languages can be used while working with Android. Android training in Chandigarh is the best way to learn and expertise in Androids.

The advent of Android: Its evolution

Interestingly, all the versions of Android are named after something sweet. Android is also a treat for your smart gadgets as it is known to make our work easy and fast. The Android journey began in September 2008, but the delicious names began from April 2009 Let us take a quick tour of all the versions of Android from the beginning.

  1. Alpha (Oldest)
  2. Beta
  3. Cupcake
  4. Donut
  5. Eclair
  6. Froyo
  7. Gingerbread
  8. Honeycomb
  9. Ice Cream Sandwich
  10. Jelly Bean
  11. KitKat
  12. Lollipop
  13. Marshmallow
  14. Nougat
  15. Oreo
  16. Android Popsicle (Latest)

AndroidP (Android Popsicle)

The latest Android version is expected to be released in August 2018. It announce a new gesture-driven interface. A Dashboard that provide you an overview of the time that you have to spent on your device in a day. And also help in optimizations to reduce battery drain, and many more.

AndroidP - Android training in Chandigarh

Disscuss about some features of AndroidP :

The basis of this version is simplicity and digital wellbeing along with the most important aspect- the Intelligence. Have a look on all the three characteristics of the long-awaited Android P:


  • Adaptive Battery: This version utilizes the machine learning to analyze for how long you use a particular app, when do use it, activating them only when they are expected to be required and that too in an energy-conserving manner.
  • Adaptive Brightness: Set your screen brightness level and the Android will utilize the information to provide appropriate lighting, and then managing those adjustments for your screen’s background. 
  • App Actions: Takes into account the App Predictions feature. It is capable of making suggestions by recommending the actions that you will most likely make.


Android Popsicle is a powerful yet simple version of Android. With its new home button, Android is expected to simplify things, is it???

Brand new Home Button, a wait worthwhile…

Android, as we all know, supports 3 buttons for navigation, but the new Android P only has an elongated Home button. The question now is how can you see your other active apps?

In Android Popsicle, you can see open apps in two ways: either by swiping up from the home button to see various app cards or by simply using Quick Scrub, a new gesture invented so that you can slide the Home button from side to side. Interesting isn’t it.

Open apps with the new gesture

Now, to take a quick look at your open apps, you have to tap the Home button and then move your finger to one side immediately. If you hold it for long, then Google Assistant will emerge for your help.

The overview menu will help you to scroll through your open apps for as long as the Home button does not come back in the center. You have to keep on scrolling till you reach your desirable app and once you reach the app, stop scrolling. The screen will reflect your choice of app. This Quick Scrub gesture works for any and every app, and it doesn’t matter which part of the OS you are in.

Closing the apps

Quick Scrub helps you to see open apps and access them. If you want to do something extra with them apart from this, then you need to properly open the Overview menu. This is possible by swiping the Home button in the upward direction.

An array of static app cards will pop-out. If you want to close any of these apps, simply swipe up the card and swoosh! it’s closed. The simplicity of Android P is expected to bring popularity to this latest version.

Copy and Pasting becomes easier

In the current version of Android, to copy or paste any text from any app, say an email, we have to open the app in full view. You then long-press to activate the highlighting bars on the text. After that, you stretch those grey handles to select the text that you want and then choose the action command( copy or paste) from the pop-up menu.

In the Android P, all these actions remain the same, but, now there is no need to open the app in full view. The copy and paste function will be available in the overview task pane. There is no need to toggle on-and-off between the full view of the apps. Now, this is known as the simplicity of Smartphones and, of course, smartness.

Learn in-depth information, trends and techniques about Android from our program of Android Training in Chandigarh. Receive training from experts and get ready to hit the market with your expertise.

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Linux containers

Why choose Red Hat for Linux containers.

Success comes from mistreatment innovation to quickly and effectively facilitate your customers. Oh, you furthermore might have to be compelled to try this faster than your competition. With containers, you’ll be able to speed up application delivery to fulfill demand and exceed expectations. Red Hat linux container solutions offer you everything you wish to implement containers in your enterprise—throughout the stack. Through open supply, open standards, and years of expertise, RedHat is your best partner altogether things containers.

You have challenges

Technology leaders should optimize 3 basic resources: budget, talent, and therefore the ability to absorb modification.

When choosing and implementing new technology like containers, it’s necessary to search out a partner that understands the way to participate in (and innovate within) open supply communities. Your partner should conjointly know how to bring those technologies to your business in an accessible and tolerable manner. the most effective thanks to accelerate innovation is by partnering with a company that bases their products and services on community-motivated, open supply comes and open standards. It’s conjointly necessary to own a partner that you simply will trust which can never lock you in.

That technology partner is Red Hat.

Trust matters

Red Hat will facilitate in any respect levels of the stack. It is not the host operating system that runs the containers, or orchestration platform and management tools you would like to manage your production surroundings, verified container images that you just build your apps on, Red Hat features a solution you’ll trust.

Some containers running among commonplace workloads, or a collection of totally orchestrated multi container apps are  integrated platform to implement Linux containers provided by Red Hat For other organization’s.

Linux containers



At the host level, you’ve got Red Hat Enterprise linux, the foremost sure and licensed linux software system obtainable. For organizations that need to focus solely on the appliance, we provide container-optimized Red Hat Enterprise linux Atomic Host. With this,you’ll be able to develop new solutions associated alter distributed systems/clusters through changelessness and limiting what an administrator can do. Red Hat Enterprise linux is versatile and might be tuned for any application or use case

Inside the linux container

Containers implies that you’ll be able to trust that your current apps—deployed on and Running Red Hat Enterprise linux within your  Red Hat Enterprise Linux—will work a similar within those linux containers. If you’re building your own apps, you get a similar level of support and reliable updates for Red Hat Enterprise linux that you’ve forever relied on. It conjointly means that your application is moveable. where you’ll be able to run Red Hat Enterprise UNIX, your new containerised apps will run there, too. Develop internally. Deploy to the cloud. Easily.


Containers will eat up storage–lots of storage., resident stateful apps in those containers lose their knowledge but there’s an inherent downside with instrumentation storage: if a container fails. Not good. Red Hat Gluster Storage is integrated with Red Hat OpenShift to provision and manage elastic storage for your containerised apps. This eliminates the requirement for associate freelance storage cluster and therefore the expense of ancient, monolithic storage solutions.

Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)

linux containers into a unified system  brings along clean metal, virtual machines to Red Hat OpenStack Platform. This allows you to to completely integrate container technologies and pack apps into your overall infrastructure. thus you’ll like having automation all over yet as self-service and quota-based access to resources across the stack.

All-in-one solution

Sometimes it’s easier to induce everything you wish promptly. That’s wherever Red Hat Cloud Suite comes in. k. Red Hat Cloud Suite remake your infrastructure thus developers will build services and bring them to customers and your organization fast, and then IT will retain control and control the setting from one place. Red Hat Cloud Suite may be a totally open source solution that mixes a container-based app development platform, personal cloud infrastructure, public cloud ability, and a typical management framework.


Container platform

Technologies like laborer and Kubernetes and combines that with an enterprise foundation in Red Hat Enterprise linux intrates container program’s could be outright by Red Hat OpenShift  platform that natively. And it’s out there as a personal or public, that permits you to use containers without having to fully re architect your apps, managed or unmanaged cloud. in addition, the facility of Red Hat OpenShift comes from its ability to run and support each stateful and homeless apps.

Red Hat Cloud Suite includes:

  • Red Hat OpenStack Platform
  • Red Hat OpenShift
  • Red Hat Virtualization
  • Red Hat CloudForms
  • Red Hat Satellite
  • Red Hat Ceph Storage
  • Red Hat Insights

Reference : Linux training in Chandigarh

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Short term courses

5 Best Short Term Computer Courses in Chandigarh for students

After the finish of board exams, the students will have just about two months of a relaxation period before the declaration of result. This time student can join the short term computer courses in a free day and gain the knowledge of computer and improve our skills. Everybody knows that in the advanced business world computer play an important role. So having basic information in computer applications won’t just improve your skill but also add to your aptitude which you may apply to a scope of profession choices later in your life. Several computer institutes across India are offering such Short term computer courses. So, it would not be the tough task to find an institute close to your location.

CBitss Technologies Institute of Short term Computer Courses in Chandigarh provides the training in computer courses and IT industry. Learning the Short-term Computer courses have many advantages. To start with, the course duration is less, making it possible to finish the course quickly before you rejoin the school for next session.

Short term computer courses

The list and information of some best short term computer courses in Chandigarh, which students can join:

Certificate Course in Graphics Designing:

  • This course is suitable for those who are passionate and creative.
  • This course usually covers topics like image enhancing and editing, sketching, logo designing, UI designing, software program editing like Adobe Photoshop, print technology etc.
  • The course generally lasts for 6 months. However, there are shorter courses too. For example, A 3-month duration certification course is also available.

Certificate Programme in MS Office:

Short term computer courses in Chandigarh provides Microsoft Office course in short duration. It is a set of applications. It comprises a set of applications which have a diverse utilization in every field, be it of education or business.

  • Some of the most prominent applications, which form the part of MS Office are MS Word, MS Excel, MS Access and MS PowerPoint.
  • The course duration is generally of 3 months.
  • This certification course can open the doors to various jobs which involve computer work like front end office jobs.

Certificate Course in Web Designing

We are living in the age of the internet, where everything is available at the pace of just one click. Therefore, more and more businesses are entering the world wide web in order to enhance their size and reach, which requires skilled web designers to create visually stunning and high performing websites.

  • Web Designing course in Chandigarh deals with creation and maintenance of websites, blogs, and E-commerce sites and includes the basics of web scripting and graphics and multimedia.
  • It involves the introduction of internet & web, HTML, DHTML, Javascript, Flash Photoshop, CMS, Hosting and Servers.
  • This certificate course in web designing generally lasts for 3-6 months.
  • After the completion of a short-term course, we will help to get jobs in good companies.

Certificate Course in Programming Language

  • A computer programming language is a language used to write computer programs. To develop software, one must learn programming languages like Java, C++, PHP, SQL etc.
  • A certificate course in programming language aims at teaching OOPs concepts, data types & operator, logical/looping, function and array, class and object, file handling operations, etc.
  • The course duration is again of 3 to 6 months.
  • A detailed version of this course can help to take up a software developer’s job in IT companies.

Certificate Course in SEO:

  • The SEO stands for Search Engine Optimization which mainly deals with the techniques to boost the rank of a website and other web entities in the search engine results page. In order to enhance the reach of a website SEO professionals are hired.
  • The course consists of e-books, PDF files, Audio and video study material.
  • A general SEO certification course lasts for 3-6 months.
  • After completing a SEO training in Chandigarh course, one may take on lucrative jobs like SEO professional, Project Manager, SEO Consultant, Website Auditor.


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